Found:

c-command

**SYNTAX: **C-command is a binary relation between nodes in a tree structure which is defined as follows:

(i) Node A c-commands node B iff a A =/= B, b A does notIn (ii) A c-commands B since A =/= B (cf. (i)a), A does not dominate B, nor does B dominate A (cf. (i)b); and the node which dominates A, XdominateB and B does not dominate A, and c every X that dominates A also dominates B. (ii) X_{2}/ \ A X_{1}/ \ B C

For the possible choices of X in (i)c several options have been proposed. The first option is to interpret X as any branching node. Under this interpretation A c-commands B iff (ia) and (ib) are met and

(iii) VP | V'An alternative option for the possible values of X in (i)c is to count only maximal projections. Under this interpretation A is said to m-command B._{2}|\ | PP | \ | P' | |\ V'_{1}| \ |\ P NP | \ | | | \ in the store | \ V NP | | buy the book

EXAMPLE: V in (iii) m-commands both the NP

The minimal phrase which contains a c- or m-commanding element A is the c- or m-command domain of that element. The notion 'minimal phrase' is defined according to the interpretation of X in the definition in (i). Thus, if A m-commands B, the minimal phrase containing A is labeled XP. The m-command domain, then, is the smallest maximal projection containing A. In (iii) PP, not VP, is the m-command domain of P, since PP is the smallest maximal projection in which P appears. If A c-commands B the minimal phrase is the first branching node dominating A. Thus, V'

LIT. | Aoun, Y. & D. Sportiche (1983) Chomsky, N. (1986b) Chomsky, N. (1986a) Chomsky, N. (1981) Reinhart, T. (1976) |