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SYNTAX: a wh-element which has not been moved overtly. In some languages (Japanese for instance), all wh-elements appear in situ; in languages with overt movement of one wh-element (like English), the other wh-elements stay in situ. EXAMPLE: what in (i) cannot move because its landing site is taken by who.

(i)  I wonder who has bought what?

There is a debate as to what mechanism is responsible for the interpretation of wh-elements in situ. Maybe what in (i) is fronted and adjoined to the embedded clause at LF. This operation is called Wh-raising (in contradistinction to wh-movement, or QR (of non-wh operators)). Another approach is to interpret wh-in-situ without LF-movement, via choice functions. Cases of wh-in-situ are not to be confused with echo-questions like John bought WHAT?: here what's landing site has not been taken by another wh-element.
LIT. Chomsky, N. (1986b)
Chomsky, N. (1981)
Lasnik, H. and M. Saito (1992)
May, Robert (1985)
Reinhart, T. (1993)