Von Kempelen talking machine
PHONETICS: In 1791 Wolfgang von Kempelen built a machine that could produce speech utterances. Voiced sounds as
well as unvoiced consonants could be generated. Bellows were used to expel air and this air was passed through a vibrating
Unvoiced sounds were produced with the reed off, and by a turbulent flow through a suitable passage. Von Kempelen claimed that, apart from the vowel sounds, approximately 19 consonant sounds could be made.
Picture and description of Von Kempelen's machine
More on the model of the vocal tract by Bell